However, Maximilian eventually confirmed the elevation with an Imperial diploma in 1576.[11]. [14] He was succeeded by Ferdinando de' Medici, his younger brother, whom he loathed. Tuscany then ceded its Lunigiana territories to Modena with the exception of Pontremoli which passed to the Duchy of Parma. In 1569, the Pope declared Cosimo grand duke of Tuscany. The city had been part of the Marquisate of Tuscany before the death of the aforementioned Margravine. [33] The once powerful navy was reduced to a pitiful state.[34]. Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. [1] The Grand Duchy was then dissolved, and replaced by the Kingdom of Etruria under the house of Bourbon-Parma, in compensation for their loss of Duchy of Parma. Cosimo frequently paid the Holy Roman Emperor, his feudal overlord, high dues. [10], Alessandro continued to rule Florence for another two years until he was murdered on January 1, 1537 by his distant relative Lorenzino de' Medici. Galileo used the pulse of his heart to keep the time and was surprised to discover the lamp’s oscillation period was unaffected by the arc’s size of oscillation. In 1569, Cosimo was elevated to the rank of Grand duke of Tuscany in 1569 by Pope Pius V.[18] Medici rule continued into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany until the family became extinct in 1737. He later proved through an experiment that the period taken by a swinging pend… [43], Leopold developed and supported many social and economic reforms. Tuscany during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; House of Commons, John Bowring, 1839, p 6, Austria and Spain were ruled by the House of Habsburg; the two are interchangeable terms for the time period in question, Mora, G. (1959) Vincenzo Chiarugi (1759–1820) and his psychiatric reform in Florence in the late 18th century (on the occasion of the bi-centenary of his birth), Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine, "COSIMO III de' Medici, granduca di Toscana in "Dizionario Biografico, "Leopold II (holy Roman emperor) -- Encyclopædia Britannica", Bandiere degli Stati italiani preunitari: Toscana, "Leopold II (grand duke of Tuscany) -- Encyclopædia Britannica", Parliamentary papers, Volume 16 By the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Duchy of Florence (Italian: Ducato di Firenze) was an Italian principality that was centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy. The United Provinces of Central Italy, a client state of the Kingdom of Sardinia, annexed Tuscany in 1859. A few years later Leopold undertook the project of building a new hospital, the Bonifacio. Following the collapse of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the grand duchy was restored. [56], Gian Gastone, the last Medici, resigned the grand duchy to Francis Stephen of Lorraine. A provisional republic was established in his stead. [4] On 12 August 1530, the Emperor created the Medici hereditary rulers (capo) of the Republic of Florence.[2][5]. Tuscany was neutral during the War of the Spanish Succession, partly due to Tuscany's ramshackle military; a 1718 military review revealed that the army numbered less than 3,000 men, many of whom were infirm and elderly. The Duke of Lucca decided to abdicate his throne in favor of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Leopoldo II, while the Lucca territories of Montignoso, Gallicano, Minucciano and Castiglione di Garfagnana were given to Modena. Leopold also approved and collaborated on the development of a political constitution, said to have anticipated by many years the promulgation of the French constitution and which presented some similarities with the Virginia Bill of Rights of 1778. [5] Italy was unified in 1870, when the remains of the Papal States were annexed in that September, deposing Pope Pius IX. The Holy League inflicted a crushing defeat against the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto. the Council of Two Hundred was a petitions court; membership was for life. The grand duke Leopold II agreed to ratify a liberal constitution in 1848. Christina dominated her grandson long after he came of age until her death in 1636. The men were chosen from the most powerful guilds, namely, those representing the major clothing industries. The Medici ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany until 1737. Region of Pisa 1. The city of Florence was established in 59 B.C. Francis Stephen altered the laws of succession in 1763, when he declared his second son, Leopold, heir to the grand duchy. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana; Latin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Republic of Florence. Ruling house of the Duchy of Florence 1533–69 Elevated to Grand Dukes of Tuscany: New title. The first official mention of the republic was in 1138, when several cities around Tuscany formed a league against Henry X of Bavaria. Marie's father Stanisław I of Poland ruled Lorraine as compensation for his loss of the Kingdom of Poland. Reggion of Grosseto 1. Francis I (as Francis Stephen became known) lived in Florence briefly with his wife, the Habsburg heiress Maria Theresa, who became Tuscany's grand duchess. [36] Meanwhile, the state's capital, Florence, had become full of beggars. Tuscany became a grand duchy on 27 August 1569 after Cosimo I de Medici, ruler of the Duchy of Florence, purchased Elba from Genoa and conquered Siena.The Pope made Cosimo a Grand Duke, and the House of Medici ruled the duchy until 1737; in … [15] He commanded the draining of the Tuscan marshlands, built a road network in Southern Tuscany, and cultivated trade in Livorno. [2][3] Following the Republic's surrender in the Siege of Florence, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor issued a proclamation explicitly stating that he and he alone could determine the government of Florence. This applies both to Florence, the capital of the Grand Duchy, and to smaller towns such as Siena, where the area chosen for accommodation was located near the Piazza del Campo, 12 or in Lucca, where hotels were all located within the city walls. The Grand-Duchy of Tuscany See also the heraldry of Tuscany.. Brief History; The Republic of Florence (to 1530) The Medici grand-dukes of Tuscany (1569-1737) The Habsburg grand-dukes (1737-1801, 1814-60) and the Kingdom of Etruria (1801-07) [14] Francesco is best remembered for dying on the same day as his second wife, Bianca Cappello, spurring rumours of poisoning. [16] To strengthen the new Tuscan alliance, he married the deceased Francesco's younger daughter, Marie, to Henry IV of France. Francis was reluctant to resign the duchy, but Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (Maria Theresa's father) stated that if he didn't relinquish his rights to Lorraine, he could not marry Maria Theresa. [43] The administrative structure of the grand duchy itself would see little change under Francis I. Francis' second surviving son Peter Leopold became grand duke of Tuscany and ruled the country until his brother Joseph's death. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants. In February 1849, Leopold II had to abandon Tuscany to Republicans and sought refuge in the Neapolitan city of Gaeta. He noticed that the lamp was drawn aside so as to light the room better. During the Holy League of 1571, Cosimo fought against the Ottoman Empire, siding with the Holy Roman Empire. Their union wrought a high level of discontentment, but despite the tension they had three children, Ferdinando, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine and the last Medicean grand duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici. [35] He sent munitions to the Emperor during the Battle of Vienna. [23], Ferdinando was obsessed with new technology, and had several hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, and telescopes installed in the Pitti. In Leopold's years Italy was engulfed in popular rebellion, culminating in the Revolutions of 1848. His descendants ruled, and resided in, the grand duchy until its end in 1859, barring one interruption, when Napoleon Bonaparte gave Tuscany to the House of Bourbon-Parma (Kingdom of Etruria, 1801–7). [11] The administration of the state was delegated to bureaucrats. Hale, J.R.: Florence and the Medici, Orion books, London, Allessandro is usually considered an illegitimate son of. Florence became a duchy in 1532 and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1569. [12] Cosimo's reign was one of the most militaristic Tuscany had ever seen. [5], Civil flag and civil ensign(1815-1848, 1849-1860), State flag with Lesser Coat of arms(1815-1848, 1849-1860), State flag with Great Coat of arms(1765-1800, 1815–1848, 1849-1860)[44], Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany(1848-1849), Lesser Coat of arms(1815-1848, 1849-1860), Great Coat of arms(1765-1800, 1815–1848, 1849-1860)[44], Flag of Grand Duchy of Tuscany(1562-1737), Former Italian state (1569–1801; 1815–1859). 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