Das SR Dekker JM Synonyms for trunks in Free Thesaurus. Relationship of adiposity with arterial stiffness as mediated by adiponectin in older men and women: the Hoorn Study. Arner P, Vega GL , MetS, Modified defined as the presence of two or more MetS components without central obesity; Elevated fasting glucose, fasting glucose of at least 5.6 mmol/liter or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes or on oral antidiabetic agents or insulin; Elevated triglycerides, triglycerides of at least 1.7 mmol/liter; Reduced HDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol less than 1.03 mmol/liter for men or less than 1.30 mmol/liter for women; Elevated blood pressure, blood pressure of at least 130/85 mm Hg or current use of antihypertentive medications. Advertising ensures that the site free to use. Wu X Only a few studies have evaluated the association of the leg fat or peripheral fat with adiponectin (13–15) or PAI-1 (10) levels. Kelly P If a particular answer is generating a lot of interest on the site today, it may be highlighted in orange. Willett D Kohrt WM, Snijder MB , , Yudkin JS There will also be a list of synonyms for your answer. , , However, most studies so far have focused on overall adiposity or abdominal obesity. Stevenson JC, Chan JC , , Rexrode KM , , Alexandersen P Results: Larger body-size adjusted trunk fat mass was significantly associated with lower adiponectin and higher PAI-1, RBP4, C-reactive protein, and IL-6 levels in both genders (P < 0.05). , Steinberg HO Haffner S Table 2 displays the results of the associations of trunk and leg fat depots with metabolic parameters. These specific characteristics may help prevent ectopic fat accumulation in liver, muscle, and pancreatic β-cells and lead to a decreased metabolic disease risk. , , However, regional distribution of excess adipose tissue, particularly abdominal fat store, has been well documented to be associated even more strongly with cardiometabolic disease than the overall obesity per se (1). Tang H As indicated in Table 3, the MetS risk monotonically increased from lowest to highest tertiles of BATF (P for trend <0.001 in both genders) after adjustment for age, residence, educational attainment, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, self-reported CVD, family history of diabetes and CVD (model 1), and BALF (model 2). Access ports also carry traffic that comes from onlythe VLAN assigned to the port. Existing studies suggested that sc adipose tissue plays an important role of buffering fluxes of free fatty acid in the circulation. , Self-reported CVD, including stroke and coronary heart disease. Certainly, additional studies with prospective designs are needed to elucidate this aspect. Multiple testing corrections were performed by the Benjamini and Hochberg procedure to determine the statistical significance of individual test. , Hijii C (38) reported that trunk, abdominal sc, and visceral fat showed similar associations with most metabolic risk factors. , , The correlation coefficients for percentage of trunk fat and leg fat were similar to those of absolute fat mass (data not shown). To our knowledge, this is the first study that simultaneously investigated trunk and leg fat depots in relation to adipokines, inflammatory markers, and MetS. Nonetheless, evidence is scarce regarding the effect of leg fat on the outcomes of metabolic diseases in Asians, especially in Chinese populations. , Ito H , Yu Z For instance, besides the genes for adipocytokines, genes encoding metabolic enzymes and related signaling proteins, and the adipogenic factors were reported to be expressed differently in abdominal and sc adipocytes (34). Nijpels G D'Agostino RB Sr, Feinstein S The current study is subject to a few limitations. We've arranged the synonyms in length order so that they are easier to find. Snyder S The confounders aforementioned were adjusted in the logistic regression models. , , Top synonyms for car trunk (other words for car trunk) are trunk of a car, trunk and boot of a car. , Although prospective studies are required, the findings from the present study provide novel insights regarding the potential mechanisms of obesity-related cytokines in mediating the opposite effects of regional fat depots on metabolic diseases. Data are mean ± sd or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables depending on the distribution of these variables and number (%) for categorical variables; P values were adjusted for age and urban/rural residence (when appropriate). , , , Compelling studies have documented that excess abdominal fat was a well established risk factor for pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and CVD (22). Li H , , Access ports belong toa single VLAN and do not provide any identifying marks on the frames that arepassed between switches. Perez A Indeed, we only detected a tendency that leg fat was associated with lower CRP and IL-6 levels in men, whereas trunk fat was significantly associated with these inflammatory factors in both sexes, which are in consistent with the results from a recent study that reported an opposite association of trunk fat and lower-body fat with CRP levels from a large cohort in the European population (27). The fallacy of using percentage body fat as a measure of adiposity. 2 synonyms for trunks: short pants, shorts. Leslie WD Effects of body fat distribution on regional lipolysis in obesity. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for MetS and its components according to the tertiles of BATF and BALF, respectively. Adjusted for age, residence, alcohol drinking, smoking, educational attainment, physical activity, self-reported CVD, and family history of diabetes and CVD (P = 0.76 and 0.35 for interaction in men and women, respectively). Briefly, information on demographic characteristics, disease status, lifestyle practice, and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form last 7-d format) was collected using a standard questionnaire. Black E Kondos G A trunk port is by default a member of allthe VLANs that exist on the switch and carry traffic for all those VLANs betweenthe switches. , Bagger YZ Tocilizumab in the Treatment of Critical COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Mechanically Ventilated Patients. Alexandersen P Model 3 further adjusted for adipokines (adiponectin, RBP4, resistin, and PAI-1) and inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6). , Bouter LM Data are geometric means for adiponectin and PAI-1 and means for RBP4 after adjustment for age, residence, alcohol drinking, smoking, educational attainment, physical activity, self-reported CVD, and family history of diabetes and CVD. Echwald S Notably, our data further showed that the association between regional fat depots and MetS was explained more by adipokines than by inflammatory markers, and this was more apparent in the leg fat when the adipokines and inflammatory markers were separately controlled in logistic regression models (data not shown). Vega et al. Shah B , , The significant associations were dramatically attenuated or even abolished after additional adjustment for inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) and adipokines (adiponectin, RBP4, resistin, and PAI-1) in model 3. , Disclosure Summary: The authors have nothing to disclose. Rasmussen C Heine RJ , , Chen Y Study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Institute for Nutritional Sciences, and all participants provided written informed consents. , Opposite of the main woody stem of a tree as distinct from its branches and roots. Gelato MC , After adjustment for BALF and potential confounders, BATF were significantly associated with most of metabolic risk factors (all P < 0.05) except fasting glucose in women and resistin in both genders. Kotani K Elevated retinol-binding protein 4 levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese people. Antonyms for trunk line. Sørensen TI, Snijder MB Central adiposity was also shown to be a predictor of increased ALT level ( 11, 12 ) and fatty liver ( 13, 14 ), independent of the body mass index (BMI). Obesity is an established risk factor for multiple metabolic abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). , , , Top trunk antonym (adjectives only) is dependent. Jingu S, Williams MJ Franco OH These body-size adjusted trunk fat mass (BATF) and leg fat mass (BALF) were used in subsequent analyses. , Our data also suggested that opposite associations of trunk and leg fat with metabolic outcomes may be partially mediated by adipokines and inflammatory markers. Rosato EL Synonyms for trunk line in Free Thesaurus. Find another word for trunk. , Internal Oblique. , , Melendez MM In contrast, corresponding to increased BALF from the lowest to the highest tertiles (Table 4), the MetS risk was significantly reduced with the ORs (95% confidence interval) 0.33 (0.18–0.62) for men and 0.43 (0.28–0.65) for women, respectively, in the highest tertile of BALF (P for trend <0.001, model 2). Mertens IL Ayers C Larsen PJ, Buemann B Snijder MB Birmingham CL, Silha JV , Methods. (2010) Opposite Associations of Trunk and Leg Fat Depots with Plasma Ferritin Levels in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese Men … They work with farmers to create unique blends using only the highest quality i Beard Design is now Opposite. Pan A , , , Mynarcik DC , , Hook G , Notably, the opposite associations of trunk fat and leg fat with ferritin levels were independent of each other and larger leg fat mass appeared to have favorable association with … Stuart LM Garvey WT Lin X, Wang J Treuth MS, Tankó LB Notably, the opposite associations of trunk fat and leg fat with ferritin levels were independent of each other and larger leg fat mass appeared to have favorable association with ferritin among different levels of trunk fat mass. Maeda K , Model 1 adjusted for age, residence, education attainment, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, self-reported CVD, and family history of diabetes and CVD. , Opposite of celebration devoted to sensual enjoyment. If you do not agree, you can click "Manage" below to review your options. This work was supported by the following: Chief Scientist Program of Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences; Chinese Academy of Sciences Grant SIBS2008006; the Ministry of Science and Technology of China 973 Program, Grant 2006CB503900 and 863 Program, Grant 2007AA02Z332; Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, Grant 08dj1400601; International Collaboration Program Grant 2008DFA31960, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences under the Knowledge Innovation Program Grant KSCX1-YW-02. , Opposite of the stalk supporting a fruit, flower, or leaf, and attaching it to a larger branch, twig, or stalk. , , Relation of abdominal fat depots to systemic markers of inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Sex differences in the relationship between C-reactive protein and body fat. , Mingrone G Kelley DE, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Nijpels G , Yu Z , , Liu Y , Because the vascular trunk is embedded in the LC, this implies that LC shift during axial elongation is associated with greater vulnerability of myopic eyes to glaucomatous damag … Flyvbjerg A Huang P Some of these cookies will send your data to our advertising partners. , Yu Z Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major. 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In addition, the leg fat/trunk fat ratio (LTR) was observed to be strongly correlated with a favorable profile of the MetS traits, adipokines, and inflammatory markers (all P < 0.05), except total cholesterol in women and resistin in both genders. Rotation of the trunk involves the external oblique on one side working with the internal oblique on the opposite side. , Body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured, and overnight fasting blood samples were collected in the local health station or the community clinic after the home interview (16). Henry RM , , Funahashi T , The characteristics of the study participants are shown in Table 1. Conclusion: In contrast to trunk fat, large leg fat appears to have favorable effects on adipokines, inflammatory markers, and MetS risk among Chinese. Liu Y Enhanced expression of PAI-1 in visceral fat: possible contributor to vascular disease in obesity. Although the roles of obesity and certain cytokines in the pathogenesis of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and CVD have been extensively investigated (32, 33), few studies have systematically evaluated adipokines and inflammatory factors, as determinates, in the associations between regional fat depots and metabolic diseases, except one study that reported that adiponectin partially explained the association of lower body fat mass with an advantageous blood lipid profile (14). , All of these biomarkers are proposed to mediate the adverse effects of obesity on the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and CVD (12). Larsen PJ Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The prevalence of MetS was 38.8% for women and 26.1% for men. , , Luo W Adjusted means of plasma adiponectin (A), RBP4 (B), and PAI-1 (C) according to the tertiles of BALF and BATF. Holst C Jankowski CM Favourable association of leg fat with cardiovascular risk factors. What are synonyms for trunk line? Trunk fat and leg fat have independent and opposite associations with fasting and postload glucose levels: the Hoorn study. To calculate the ORs for MetS according to the tertiles of BATF, a modified definition of MetS (two or more MetS components without central obesity) was used (16) because of the high correlation of trunk fat with waist circumference. Melendez MM Franco OH Lin X, Cole TJ , Christiansen C, Godsland IF Franco OH Favuzzi AMR , This glossary of botanical terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to botany and plants in general. Wang X Li H , A total body DXA scan was performed to determine trunk and leg fat mass. Objective: The objective was to investigate associations of regional fat depots with adipokines, inflammatory markers, and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population. A port ona Cisco switch is either an access port or a trunk port. , Noun. Citation: Wu H, Qi Q, Yu Z, Sun L, Li H, et al. , Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Women also had significantly higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, and lower RBP4 levels (all P < 0.001). Thaete FL As shown in Figure 2, the risk for MetS increased remarkably among participants with less leg fat and more trunk fat depots for men and women. Another limitation is that DXA could not separate visceral and sc fat in the trunk, as well as sc and intramuscular fat in the legs. , , Antonyms for trunks. Hemostatic risk factors and insulin sensitivity, regional body fat distribution, and the metabolic syndrome. Egami Y Nyomba BL , Tea Trunk is one of India’s first Tea Brands founded and run by a Tea Sommelier. Li H , Pedersen SB , Nevertheless, little is known about how and to what extent the association between regional body fat distribution and MetS risk could attribute to the multiple adipokines and inflammatory markers. Adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals for MetS and its components according to BALF tertiles. Potential confounders included age, residence, educational attainment, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, self reported CVD, and family history of diabetes and CVD. Hu FB Influence of body fat content and distribution on variation in metabolic risk. McNurlan MA , Prentice A, Lear SA Hardy VE Larger body-size adjusted leg fat mass was significantly associated with higher adiponectin levels in both genders but lower RBP4 and PAI-1 concentrations in men (P < 0.05). , Lau R , We've listed any clues from our database that match your search. Given a systematical investigation in the current study, we have first evidenced opposite influences of regional fat distributions on multiple adipokines and inflammatory marker in a single population. Kostense PJ , adjectives nouns Tags. "cros...rd" or "he?p"). The opposite associations between regional fat depots and MetS risk may partially mediated by adipokines and inflammatory status. Residuals from regression of trunk or leg fat on total body mass were obtained and then rescaled by adding the expected trunk or leg fat for a person with mean total body mass (21). Measurements of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density cholesterol (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), adiponectin, RBP4, resistin, PAI-1, CRP, and IL-6 were described previously (16–20). Visser M Hu FB He G Sinha MK Larger trunk fat was also significantly associated with elevated triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in both genders (all P for trend <0.05) and elevated fasting glucose (P for trend =0.03) and blood pressure (P for trend <0.001) in men. View. Trunk antonyms. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criterion for Asian Americans was used to define MetS. , We use cookies on The Crossword Solver to help our site work, to understand how it is used and to tailor the advertisements shown on our site. Two types of branching occur in trees and shrubs: alternate branching and opposite branching.With alternate branching, the side branches are staggered and alternate throughout the branch. Astrup A Spearman’s partial correlation coefficients of BALF and BATF with metabolic features and cytokines. , Body composition, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular disease profile in healthy europeans. Seidell JC The study population was a subset of participants in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China Project, a population based cross-sectional survey among 3289 residents aged 50–70 yr from Beijing and Shanghai in 2005 (16). We're working closely with our server provider and will try to get things back to normal as soon as possible. The trunk then rotates towards the side of the internal oblique (Figure 10.6e). , For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. These results suggested that leg adiposity accumulation might have a protective effect against metabolic disease risk rather than simply being less harmful. In standing and sitting, the oblique abdominals work with the neck muscles in turning to look to the side and behind. Miura M Influence of age on the association of retinol-binding protein 4 with metabolic syndrome. In a secondary analyses, plasma adipokines and inflammatory markers were further adjusted to examine to what extent these biomarkers may explain the association of regional fat depot with MetS. Search for other works by this author on: Abdominal obesity and the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: sixteen years of follow-up in US women. Kohli S Fewtrell MS , Nakamura T Gozansky WS To normal as soon as possible in subsequent analyses depending on the frames arepassed... ) to opposite sides also discovered a novel inverse association of leg fat with RBP4 levels, particularly in (. To botany and plants in general known as a dickey ( also spelled dicky or diggy ), South-East... And concepts relevant to botany and plants in general the evaluation of diabetes risk and... We hope you continue to use the Crossword Solver ethics committee of FB07 of the associations of trunk fat it! 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