NOTE: Click here for additional background information regarding design values. Wooden materials covered here include timber, lumber, wood-base fibers, commercial softwoods and hardwoods, wood preservatives, laminated timber, and composite lumber to name a few. <>>> In wood, the properties are inferred through visual grading criteria, nondestructive measurement such as flatwise bend-ing stiffness or density, or a combination of these properties. �Aue� �?�BV۶!k:�u����W^��[���4�5^�~]R�F�m�ʭv~���Ŷ���AT����%g�ʶ�$���G����\�u�o�D��ݰ���t�r��˶��I#�ɐ���$��,~4k�.���B�������/orZZ�k�&��>.xAy|v��Yu�|W��%�L�./lP�\J7�e"3�������\؁"��6�[A@h�M�~�یɩU���9=�`�-��5s����ט�c͘�Q�(�wt� ��uP����:L������ ��au����D-�Py����N��鶑?==����pM��C'ڮl��!�t��\������ݺ�׼��ǽ�������P�Z�c�I��۷O�����3i&��;���|�!���K��h�j3c� wood varies with conditions under which it is used, reference design values should only be applied in conjunction with appropriate design and service recommendations ®from the National Design Specification ® (ND S ) for Wood Construction published by the American Wood Council. The American Lumber Standards Committee (ALSC) has certified the first-ever set of engineering design values for cypress. While most structural lumber has design values assigned on the basis of visual grading to meet a minimum ... National Design Specification The principal reference for the working stresses for commercial grades of structural lumber is the National 1.6.2 Structural Glued Laminated Timber Design values for structural glued laminated timber (glulam) shall be as specified for the laminating combination as listed in the NDS® Supplement, American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC) Standard Specification AITC 117, or AITC 119 (see References 7 and 8). Both DIYers and building professionals will like these garden and outdoor living ideas and plans. Wood Structural Panels 10. Civil Engineering Design Knowledge. Below is a list of the design values which are typically needed to design wood components. SURGXFWV IRU RYHU \HDUV ¿UVW LQ WKH IRUP RI WKH Wood Structural Design Data series and then in the National 'HVLJQ 6SHFL¿FDWLRQ 1'6 IRU :RRG &RQVWUXFWLRQ. 5.2 Reference Design Values 35 5.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Values 36 5.4 Special Design Considerations 39 6ound Timber Poles and Piles R ..... 43 6.1 General 44 6.2 Reference Design Values 44 6.3 Adjustment of Reference Design Values 44 7 Prefabricated Wood I-Joists ..... 47 7.1 General 48 Maximum lateral resistance and safe design load values for small-diameter (nails, spikes, and wood screws) and large-diameter dowel-type fasteners (bolts, lag screws, and drift pins) were based on an empirical method prior to 1991. Below is a list of the design values which are typically needed to design wood components. When the depth, d, of Dense Structural 86, Dense Structural 72, or Dense Structural 65 dimension lumber exceeds 12”, the tabulated bending design value, Fb, shall be multiplied by … stress design (ASD), which is based on a design stress at the lower 5th percentile 10-year bending stress. The actual design value(s) that will be used when design a structural wood component will depend on what the wood component is being design … Because the strength of wood varies with conditions under which it is used, design values should only be applied in conjunction with appropriate design and structural material, the allowable engineering design proper-ties must be either inferred or measured nondestructively. Ϝ��y�%�Μ���3E�gN�Ac3�M�9E�gN���q�g��\aڽ�/cO`�0Ҝ�a���b��XW�˴�XEn���$�n^�ա��0~�] ���oЕ�\���Us������a���Us���V�l[$���W[ן��7��Mz&���'�uv�_��v�x�t�'^m��5���k�����@"�K6��'m��������o�v+��{J�@����. Structural design of wood buildings and components is undertaken using the loads defined in Part 4 of the NBC and the material resistance values obtained using the CSA O86 standard. <> endobj Mechanical Connections 12. The design values contained herein are based on the Southern Pine Inspection Bureau’s Standard Grading Rules for Southern Pine Lumber and modified as required by the American Wood Council’s National Design Specification® (NDS®) for Wood Construction. F = Reference (Baseline) Design Value. Summary of the practices and procedures for determining the reference design values and properties of lumber and timber elements in existing structures. All rights reserved. These easy-to-use tables were compiled by the Southern Forest Products Association (SFPA) as a service to design/build professionals and other Southern Pine users. The conditions under which lumber is used in construction may vary widely, as does the quality of workmanship. The latest connection design information is also provided in the NDS. "List of Construction Lumber (Wood) Pricelist in the Philippines" was written by admin under the Business category. �T"���͙�*;{Z��r*cRPmY��s���> Philippine Rosewood (Toog) is a natural species which is currently no longer being harvested. This practice starts with property values from clear wood specimens and includes necessary procedures for the formulation of structural grades of any desired strength ratio. Reference design values are for normal load duration under the moisture service conditions specified. erties of wood along and across the grain and to dimensional changes that may occur with changes in moisture content. ber 4 in thick, 8 in and wider, tabulated bending design values F b shall be permitted to be multplied by the size factior C F = 1.1. for dimension lumber wider than 12 in, tabulated bending, tension, and compression parallel-to-grain design values for 12-in-wide lumber shall be multiplied by the size factor C F = 0.9. Curtin, G. Shaw, J.K. Beck & W.A. As a result, wood possesses material properties that may be significantly different from other materials normally encountered in structural design. When structural members will experience sustained exposure to elevated temperatures up to 150 deg. Please read the Disclaimer below, then choose the appropriate table for your application. Download a PDF, Tables 1 and 2. Modulus of elasticity also referred to as Tensile Modulus or Young's Modulus. 1 0 obj 3 0 obj This website is presented by SFPA members, including: © 2020 Southern Forest Products Association. Modulus of elasticity also referred to as Tensile Modulus or Young's Modulus. ���s�_>>=﷿�׈_���?��?�����n��W7����z����M�lKv�ɶ�>|\�ߤ{k�o1�^��l����[��������׿������hƿ~���!�e���7��>��4?��/��{;�YG �m��u�M/�������o�b�����0/ e��}{��F�h��6j�����׍��f�|���n�S5�_������>���+�C� ܞ7�fZ�^����� z9�j�IG��]aX�r�����ι�\��\�}�W�.B-�a�h?��h�?��ʯ��o��u_N �y�������������G��E� �2�iN_�q��:���{����%��iɇg�:F�:R5�9����ZH�`U봫��_ެS��u�|�����7d�9�W���qYe�Qw�W]�O�~=�te>��r�{�n����� ����I,��Nuk���E|{�����t�W�u�o�'ޭݣ[�����λ���ʮCPͱ~�-�_�gO������w��~]�Ls�a% �F��J��i�����]eum��yh]� ۶ӽY\�v�=`�o��Ѯ~�1�5^�u�V���5�a���O��d���>M�F"��P�������]џ�?��0f�x�X#N���}����c�^�xY�-ké�~(B��!��k�jGUx ͯ�Y�4l��J7 �_��⣛���/ɻ� ���4�+��� 0M:�W=w�>�>Ooז(�+��O��R��I����4�i���h���>{S�t(o��sN�WUFE��+��>��_�i���z 9. REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES • The design values listed in the tables in the NSCP 2015 (Table 615.2-1 – Reference Values for Visually Stress-Graded Unseasoned Structural Timber of Philippine Woods)) are referred to as the reference design values • All reference design values (except E) includes reduction for safety • Reference Design values … This manual provides a walk-through for basic wood identification, inspection, condition assess-ment, field grading, and design value estimation for wood in covered bridges. F = Reference (Baseline) Design Value. Sound Advice Consulting and expert services in wood science and technology, including the inspection, testing, assessment and nondestructive evaluation of wood and wood-based materials. For example: In 1967 tests by the Forest Products Lab, measured failure of #1 SYP for tension parallel to grain varied from 1570 psi to 12,640 psi, with an average of 5480 psi. For timber connections use the current National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS) printed by National Forest Products Association. Timber construction is differentiated from its much younger cousin, light-frame wood construction (commonly referred to as stick framing), by the size of the members. 1.1 This practice (1, 2) 2 covers the basic principles for establishing related unit stresses and stiffness values for design with visually-graded solid sawn structural lumber. Reference design values are based on normal load duration under the moisture service conditions specified. Design properties are lower than the average properties of clear, straight-grained wood tabulated in Chapter 4. New design values for visually graded Southern Pine dimension lumber became effective June 1, 2013. erties of wood along and across the grain and to dimensional changes that may occur with changes in moisture content. New Design Values The lumber industry conducts ongoing testing and invests millions of dollars to provide the most accurate and reliable design values for structural lumber. Modulus of Elasticity of Wood, Wood Engineering Design Data. = reference compression design value parallel to grain multiplied by all applicable adjust- ment factors except C. P. (see 2.3), psi /d c = 0.8 for sawn lumber c = 0.85 for round timber poles and piles c = 0.9 for structural glued laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and cross- laminated timber. Structural wood design for vertical (gravity) loads including bending, shear, deflection, vibration, tension, compression, and connections will be ... Wood Design: Reference Design Values Reference Design Values: The quantifiable mechanical properties that are associated with each identifiable commercial grade of Structural wood design for vertical (gravity) loads including bending, shear, deflection, vibration, tension, compression, and connections will be ... Wood Design: Reference Design Values Reference Design Values: The quantifiable mechanical properties that are associated with each identifiable commercial grade of New design values for visually graded Southern Pine dimension lumber became effective June 1, 2013. (3)For lumber wider than 12”, multiply these 12”-width design values for F b, F t and F c by C F = .90, and use these 12”-width design values for the other properties. For aluminum and concrete members use the latest acceptable national standard. F’ = Allowable Design Value after all Adjustments have been made. The article was created on 08 March 2018 and updated on 08 March 2018 . Split Ring and Shear Plate Connectors 14. The n ew ds ig val ur tmfo c tests of more than 7,400 full-size samples of Timber Rivets 15. 5D Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Hardwood Timber (Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression) ..... 71 6A Reference Design Values for Treated Round Timber Piles Graded per ASTM D25 ..... 74 6B Reference Design Values for Round Timber Construction Poles Graded per ASTM D3200 .... 74 Most trees are characterized by a typical color and odor.Thus, walnut wood is distinguished by its typical dark brown color.Similarly, a freshly cut teak wood has a golden yellow shade.The softwoods like deodar and pine show light (white) colors.As regards odor (smell), quite a few kind of woods are immediately identified by their characteristic smell.Teak kinds of wood have an aromatic smell.The pines smell of resin… New Design Values The lumber industry conducts ongoing testing and invests millions of dollars to provide the most accurate and reliable design values for structural lumber. Except as otherwise noted, the values are computed in accordance with ASTM standards based on clear-wood tests or on tests of full-size pieces in specific grades. stream Products Association’s manual for Wood Structural Design Data, 1986 Edition. Dowel-Type Fasteners 13. Fire Design of Wood Members 13 1. specifications without specific reference to timber species, condition, or grade, which can result in an inaccurate assess-ment of the structure. endobj SFPA does not grade or test lumber, and accordingly, does not assign design values to Southern Pine lumber. Sawn Lumber Grading Agencies 2. F’ = Allowable Design Value after all Adjustments have been made. Bray Revised by David Easterbrook 0 6320 5612 6 978 06320 5612 5 Structural Foundation Designers’ Manual Second Edition Sound Advice Consulting and expert services in wood science and technology, including the inspection, testing, assessment and nondestructive evaluation of wood and wood … PDF downloads of Southern Pine design value tables are available. Table 1 provides the design values for visually graded Southern Pine dimension lumber that became effective June 1, 2013. "List of Construction Lumber (Wood) Pricelist in the Philippines" was written by admin under the Business category. 2 0 obj Maximum lateral resistance and safe design load values for small-diameter (nails, spikes, and wood screws) and large-diameter dowel-type fasteners (bolts, lag screws, and drift pins) were based on an … Raised floor homes look great and protect homeowners against risks from flooding and subsiding soils. The following table is Structural Lumber Wood Engineering Properties. Except as otherwise noted, the values are computed in accordance with ASTM standards based on clear-wood tests or on tests of full-size pieces in … The properties depend on the particular sorting criteria and on additional factors that are independent of the sorting criteria. The design values now are recognized in model building codes across the United States. It has been read 108178 times and generated 27 comments. Reaction Wood 4–31 Juvenile Wood 4–32 Compression Failures 4–33 Pitch Pockets 4–33 Bird Peck 4–33 Extractives 4–33 Properties of Timber From Dead Trees 4–33 Effects of Manufacturing and Service Environments 4–34 Moisture Content 4–34 Temperature 4–35 Time Under Load 4–37 Aging 4–41 Exposure to Chemicals 4–41 Then use the other modern values for that grade. ��2�>�2�2�o��y�日q��6Ƈ���}�$���q���9v;$P}w@�|��ޞ/R��Z���`�!���9�1���}�G���nT�2�F�!�޹�,�nn< Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5 Jack Porteous & Adby Kermani 1 4051 4638 9 978 14051 4638 8 Structural Masonry Designers’ Manual Third Edition W.G. The actual design value(s) that will be used when design a structural wood component will depend on what the wood component is being design to do. It has been read 108178 times and generated 27 comments. Special Loading Conditions 16. The 2018 Wood Design Package brings together all required elements for design of wood structures in one comprehensive document. We still have stocks available, cut prior to the IFMA logging restrictions of 2011. x��}]��������@���n�0����� �xf��%�,_ ���f����"�X��-���Eً_����㧷?�z�����_}��ӫ��z����_��çO~��W����7_���Oo߿�����o���������_�Aݔ�7�����Bݚ�u��>ކ�ޯ?���/��O�?������q��~���5�.a��7w�z����I�����n��^�|�����S����j�}xz>��g/bE�cs�գ���t�]M�t�����xU{R�T藵z�~z�=�����F�Z��������_6�Ob ӵ˽��v�tk����uӽ[Ґ��C��By}wo=��޽{��4����U�����y��W�o>���;o~�ط�}�Æo/�������bm�yR��Y1��(��Z��_ }�����������h��Ӌ��ݭ�Nk�鶼��;��ƹ��꒾gO��iu���l��� Table 1 provides the design values for visually graded Southern Pine dimension lumber that became effective June 1, 2013. Repetitive member factor C r While light-frame wood construction is made up of dimensional lumber or manufactured I-joists, timber structures are fashioned from sawn or hewn timbers 5”x5” and larger. endobj <> Elastic ratios for various wood species at approximately 12% moisture content - … There is so much variability in wood, that pinpointing an exact value for any design value is futile. It is a very durable species, which FILTRA has used for decking, flooring, furniture, and gift items. Summary of the practices and procedures for determining the reference design values and properties of lumber and timber elements in existing structures. values that the reviewer should use for timber and structural steel. Modulus of Elasticity of Wood, Wood Engineering Design Data. Elastic ratios for various wood species at approximately 12% moisture content - see bottom of webpage. (2)For lumber 4” thick and 8” or wider, multiply the F b value by C F =1.1. Species Combinations 3. Lumber Design Values. American Lumber Standard Committee. Cross-Laminated Timber 11. PROPERTIES OF WOOD AND STRUCTURAL WOOD PRODUCTS 3.1 INTRODUCTION Wood differs from other construction materials because it is produced in a living tree. Download a PDF, Tables 3 and 4. Table 1: Visually Graded Dimension Lumber 2″ to 4″ thick, 2″ and wider ASTM's wood standards are instrumental in the evaluation and testing of the physical and chemical properties of a wide range of wood and wood-based products. 9��M-���I�%���+��'\�a#��F)�~���ߠM��I֪z��]u��WDNb/|���sN�8D����gG�����{�O`�$0��H����v>Ncz�1�����*�{��6�!MNcZ�:_QX�e���q���]�kgzIAg���$���:ɢ������wǭs�5���페>�}��Kbz �������b��W+}!`���2s.Ǚs\g� ̜���3Z�~2��̜�������Q@t�te�gNTȾ-� Civil Engineering Design Knowledge. PROPERTIES OF WOOD AND STRUCTURAL WOOD PRODUCTS 3.1 INTRODUCTION Wood differs from other construction materials because it is produced in a living tree. %PDF-1.5 As a result, wood possesses material properties that may be significantly different from other materials normally encountered in structural design. 5A Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood Timber (Members stressed primarily in bending) ..... 62 5B Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood Timber (Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression) ..... 66 Section Properties 4. The n ew ds ig val ur tmfo c tests of more … The article was created on 08 March … Accordingly, neither SFPA, nor its members, warrant that the design values on which the span tables for Southern Pine lumber contained herein are based are correct, and specifically disclaim any liability for injury or damage resulting from the use of such span tables. The following table is Structural Lumber Wood Engineering Properties. Design Values Make Specifying Cypress Easier. Neither SFPA, nor its members, have knowledge of the quality of materials, workmanship or construction methods used on any construction project and, accordingly, do not warrant the technical data, design or performance of the lumber in completed structures. Design values provided herein are for Western softwood species manufactured and shipped by mills in the 12 contiguous Western states and Alaska. design values for 12” wide lumber shall be multiplied by the size factor, Cf = 0.9. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> F, Reference design values shall be multiplied by the following: Reference Design Values In-Service Moisture T <= 100 degF Conditions Ct 100 degF
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