Transactional code-switching comes under the heading of the type of switching most commonly discussed as being controlled by components of the speech event such as topic and participants. 2.4 Metaphorical Switching In code switching, there are two other terms called metaphorical switching and situational switching. In situational switching, a change of language signals a change in the definition of the speech event, involving “clear changes in the participants” definition of each other’s rights and and metaphorical code switching that is still a point of depar- ture for most researchers. competence in situational and metaphorical switching is attained well before intrasentential switching norms are established. discussed of social typologies are the categories “situational code switching” and “metaphorical code switching” described by Blom & Gumperz (1972), and later expanded and modified by Gumperz (1982) in terms of “conversational code switching.” Gumperz (1982) and others (e.g. Metaphorical codeswitching, on the other hand, The data shows only situational code switching that appears in the movie. Auer 1998: 3). code-switching constraints, i.e. This may include languages, dialects, registers, styles, or other forms of language, as well as a standard variety. Below, I survey some important early work. Bloom &Gumperz (1972) classifies the types of code switching based on contextual/ pragmatic approach. However, by 1972 the term “code switching” was well attested in the literature, and several studies in linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics prefigured later code switching research in sociocultural linguistics. They are situational code switching and metaphorical code switching. Myers-Scotton 1993b; Zentella 1997) have used the Firstly, the writer will explain about metaphorical switching in Situational code switching occurs when speakers change code between different situations or settings without requiring of changing topic. metaphorical switching. codeswitching. metaphorical switching (see below). the points within a sentence at which the transition from one language to the other is possible. Gumperz (1972). As code switching is considered an indicator of advanced bilingual According to Blom & Gumpers, situational code-switching involves change of topic, participants, as well as setting of a conversation; on the other hand, metaphorical code-switching entails different conversational purposes such as to reject, to apologize or to complain. According to Blom and Gumperz (1972: 409), situational codeswitching occurs when alternations between language varieties redefine a situation, being a change in governing norm. It means that all of the switching happens because of the change of situations. In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster Example of metaphorical code switching. concepts of ‘transactional’ and ‘metaphorical’ switching (also referred to as situational and non-situational code-switching). code switching has been investigated in terms of its linguistic and social dimensions (e.g., Aguirre, 1985; Gumperz, 1977; Jacobson, 1990; Zentella, 1997), the use of code switching in writing and writing-related academic contexts has received less attention (Callahan, 2004). On the other hand, metaphorical code switching involves changing in topic, followed by shifting the tone of the conversation such as from formal to informal, Hymes and Gumperz (1973) distinguished between metaphorical and situational codeswitching. 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