In mild cases of asymmetric GO patients may still benefit from selenium supplementation (43). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Demographic and clinical profile of 1000 patients with thyroid eye disease presenting to a Tertiary Eye Care Institute in India. Citations. Efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with active moderate-to-severe Graves’ orbitopathy. Open-access publisher of peer-reviewed scientific articles across the entire spectrum of academia. ... 2020. Eur J Endocrinol (2003) 148:491–5. Fox TJ, Anastasopoulou C. Graves Orbitopathy. Impact Factor 3.644 ... Frontiers in Endocrinology Neuroendocrine Science Toggle navigation Section (current) Section; ... Sandoval D, Han X and Fujikawa T (2020) Leptin Receptors in RIP-Cre 25Mgn Neurons Mediate Anti-dyslipidemia Effects of Leptin in Insulin-Deficient Mice. Br J Ophthalmol (2009) 93:1052–6. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg (2004) 20:224–5. Decompression surgery may be used in appropriate cases. Thyroid (2008) 18:541–4. Perros P, Hegedus L, Bartalena L, Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Baldeschi L, et al. Unilateral disease was defined as one or more clinical features of GO in one eye without any evidence of GO in the contralateral eye (12). doi: 10.1038/eye.2012.132, 36. Asymmetric graves ophthalmopathy as a sole manifestation of autoimmune hypothyroidism. Orbit (2009) 28:342–6. Clin Ophthalmol (2014) 8:1295–300. Clin Endocrinol (2017) 86:247–55. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg (2006) 22:319–24. Eur J Internal Med (2008) 19:531–6. The epidemiologic characteristics and clinical course of ophthalmopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota. It has been suggested that unilateral GO may progress to bilateral disease (11) and we have also found that asymmetry was associated with more severe and active GO (12). More recently, in our multi-center prospective cohort recruiting 269 newly diagnosed patients from 13 different centers across Europe, we have found a prevalence of 30.9% for asymmetric and 10.7% for unilateral GO (12). Douglas RS, Kahaly GJ, Patel A, Sile S, Thompson EHZ, Perdok R, et al. Angle Orthodontist (1981) 51:214–26. ISSN: 0013-7227. Jang SY, Lee SY, Lee EJ, Yoon JS. Frontiers in Endocrinology publishes rigorously peer-reviewed research from basic molecular and cellular communication to clinical care, advancing our understanding of the endocrine system, and leading to novel therapies for some of the most prevalent health issues such as obesity, diabetes, reproduction and aging.. Loop is the open research network that increases the discoverability and impact of researchers and their work. Front. PloS One (2015) 10:e0119589. Such studies may provide further answers in regards to GO development and management. In fact, TRAb titer together with smoking, duration of thyroid dysfunction and clinical activity score (CAS) at baseline are regarded as main risk factors for developing GO (6). doi: 10.1089/thy.2007.0302, 33. Eckstein AK, Losch C, Glowacka D, Schott M, Mann K, Esser J, et al. J Pers Soc Psychol (1997) 72:456–66. Moreover, previous studies have shown no difference in regards to race (13) and sex (29), but more recent data, including our recent multicenter study (12) and a cohort of 354 Chinese patients (36), have shown that male sex is associated with asymmetry. Kavoussi SC, Giacometti JN, Servat JJ, Levin F. The relationship between sex and symmetry in thyroid eye disease. Chebib FS, Chamma AM. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701925, 23. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2012-007485, 42. Autoimmune processes resulting in proliferation of orbital fibroblasts, increased adipogenesis, and extracellular matrix expansion are involved in its pathophysiology (5) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Receptor Antibodies (TRAb) seem to be a key determinant. Loop enables you to stay up-to-date with the latest discoveries and news, connect with researchers and form new collaborations. Herein, we review the available literature on asymmetric GO and highlight differences compared with bilateral disease. Prevalence, Phenotype, and Psychosocial Well-Being in Euthyroid/Hypothyroid Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy. View all Eur J Endocrinol (2006) 154:511–7. Clin Endocrinol (1997) 47:9–14. doi: 10.3109/01676830903162841, 17. With an Impact Factor of 3.675, Frontiers in Endocrinology is the 2nd most cited open-access journal in Endocrinology & Metabolism. Therefore, prospective multicenter studies recruiting patients with different socioeconomic, demographic, ethnic, and anthropometric background are needed to better elucidate the epidemiology as well as other parameters of asymmetry and/or unilateral disease. Diagnosing unilateral or asymmetric GO without any other signs of GO and especially in the absence of hyperthyroidism or high TRAb titer suggestive of Graves’ disease can be challenging (41) and requires increased clinical awareness and usually imaging of the orbits. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3182582330, 40. Predictive score for the development or progression of Graves’ orbitopathy in patients with newly diagnosed Graves’ hyperthyroidism. This year, 138 journals are listed in the category of Endocrinology & Metabolism in the 2016 edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR), of which 16 are open-access (OA).. Perros P, Zarkovic MP, Panagiotou GC, Azzolini C, Ayvaz G, Baldeschi L, et al. • Frontiers in Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering all aspects of endocrinology in 15 sections. Abraham-Nordling M, Bystrom K, Torring O, Lantz M, Berg G, Calissendorff J, et al. Shorter duration of symptoms (29) and thyroid status might be associated with asymmetry. The presence of GO is associated with increased psychological burden and, in severe cases may cause blindness. Graves’ Orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune orbital disorder usually presenting as a sequala of autoimmune thyroid disease. With an Impact Factor of 3.675, Frontiers in Endocrinology is the 2nd most cited open-access journal in Endocrinology & Metabolism. BioMed Res Int (2018) 2018:4845894. doi: 10.1155/2018/4845894, 45. However, in a recently published retrospective hospital-based report from India, unilateral disease was much higher at 36% and significantly more common among silent presenters compared to the clinically active group (33). GO is closely associated with thyroid autoimmunity, and although it is classically linked with hyperthyroidism, GO features have been described in hypothyroid or euthyroid individuals (4). In another study, male subjects exhibited asymmetric disease (proptosis and overall asymmetry) three-fold more frequently compared with women, while women with hyperthyroidism demonstrated more symmetry compared with euthyroid and hypothyroid individuals of either sexes (23). It is important to note that published studies have used different definitions of asymmetry and/or unilateral GO and this might explain the big variation in reported epidemiology among published data. 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